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Review of empirical and emerging breeding methods and tools for yam (Dioscorea spp.) improvement: status and prospects

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important tuber crop with tremendous potential as a functional food in the tropics and subtropics. However, the crop has not shown progressive productivity gain over decades due to various production constraints. This paper reviews the progress achieved in empirical breeding endeavours and the development, status and application of emerging breeding tools and technologies to translate genetic gains in yam improvement. Significant progress has been made in yam genetic improvement over the years which has led to the identification and development of several improved clones and sources of variability for various economically important traits. Substantial efforts have also been made to develop diverse molecular markers, transcriptome and metabolome profiles of crucial traits, trait mapping and generate reference genome sequences of the key species. However, there seems to be a slow translation of research improvements into widespread applications. These advances and the integration of empirical and emerging methods and technologies into the breeding process will enhance yam breeding efforts and ensure the quick delivery of improved varieties that possess superior agronomic and quality traits.