Tracking indirect beneficiaries of complex development interventions in agriculture.

This literature review is intended to outline how to track the fate or diffusion of a development intervention
among the beneficiary households not directly targeted by a development program and/or its partners. For
the purposes of this review, we define a direct beneficiary as a unit (individual or household) that is directly
reached by the project and/or its partners and that meets the eligibility criteria set by the project. Such criteria
can be defined in terms of poverty score, wealth index, a specific age group of children, geography, and/or
pregnancy status. Consequently, an indirect beneficiary is any household, whether eligible or not, that receives the intervention from sources other than the project and its partners, that is informally from the direct beneficiary through household‐household relationships or social networks. Such sources may include family, friends, and/or group and religious organizations to which they or their family and friends belong.