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Retention of pro-vitamin A carotenoid in composite bread baked with high quality cassava flour from yellow-fleshed cassava root

Background: As one of the most widely consumed foods, bread is one of the most important agricultural products. Bread made from high-quality cassava flour is consumed in some parts of Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). The bread has no pro-vitamin S carotenoids (pVAC) due to the use of artificial colorants. Consequently, there is a need for the use of pVAC rich foods for bread production. Foods that are rich with pro-vitamin A carotenoids can be converted into retinol in the human body and whose bioconversion contributes to the reduction of vitamin A deficiency diseases (VAD). VAD has caused annual loss of life in SSA, especially in Nigeria. The yellow-fleshed cassava root might contribute to the reduction of this disease. The high quality yellow cassava flour (YHQCF) produced from yellow-fleshed cassava root may contribute to the pVAC composition of bread. As a result, there is a need for the evaluation of the retention of pVAC in composite bread baked with high quality cassava flour from yellow-fleshed cassava roots.