Tag Archives: banana

ILAC pilots transdisciplinary research on Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in DR Congo

The Institutional Learning and Change (ILAC) Initiative, in partnership with Bioversity International and with funds from the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), is working on a pilot transdisciplinary project in South Kivu, DR Congo aiming to control Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), a disease that is devastating banana production in central and eastern Africa.

Transdisciplinary Research: A pilot project in Congo[1]

by Javier Ekboir, Cristina Sette, Boudy van Schagen and Guy Blomme

Why transdisciplinary research? How different is it from other types of research?

With the new and evolving trends in research and development, the CGIAR needs to better understand and define what research for development (R4D) actually means in terms of new research frameworks and practices. For example, what does it mean for a plant pathologist to do R4D? What he/she should do differently from his/her traditional practice? In recent years several organizations have asked similar questions in many areas of research, including health, agriculture and physics, and they all have converged on the idea that they have to foster greater interaction among different stakeholders of research. Such approach is known as transdisciplinary research.

The table below explains the differences between transdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary research.

Transdisciplinary Research Multidisciplinary Research Interdisciplinary Research
Collaboration in which exchanging information, altering discipline-specific approaches, sharing resources and integrating disciplines achieves a common scientific goal (Rosenberg 1992). Researchers from a variety of disciplines work together at some point during a project, but have separate questions, separate conclusions, and disseminate in different journals. Researchers interact with the goal of transferring knowledge from one discipline to another. Allows researchers to inform each other’s work and compare individual findings.

Source: Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Center at Washington University

Transdisciplinary research focuses on exploring different types of engagement, for example, when farmers are consulted and their needs and opinions are addressed, but they are not part of the research itself.

While the principles of transdisciplinary research are well known (see Frodeman, Thompson Klein and Mitcham 2012), it has been difficult to apply them in practice because transdisciplinary research is a complex process and as such requires adaptive management and strong learning capacities (Patton 2011).

The Institutional Learning and Change (ILAC) Initiative, with funds from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB), in partnership with Bioversity International, have initiated a pilot project in two villages of the South Kivu province, DR Congo, aiming to control Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), a disease that is devastating banana production in central and eastern Africa.[2] In more detail, the project seeks to develop principles CGIAR can use to better conduct research for development, adapted to the particular features of each research project. The project’s technical and social goals are to

  • develop new recommendations for the control of BXW that take into account the needs, constraints and possibilities of different types of farmers and new approaches for the diffusion of the recommendations among farmers
  • explore whether a transdisciplinary approach leads to new agronomic, social and extension recommendations that accelerate uptake of research results
  • identify principles for the implementation of transdisciplinary research in the context of agricultural research for development

What difference is it already making on the BXW project in Congo?

After a few months of implementation, the transdisciplinary project was able to refocus the initial agronomic and social science research questions on the basis of information generated in non-controlled experiments and anecdotal information.

Initially, the main research question that guided the agronomic research was “how low and how fast the incidence of BXW could be driven down by using a new control strategy, i.e., Single Diseased Stem Removal (SDSR)?”

With the epidemiological information available at the moment, the research team concluded that BXW could not be eradicated; therefore, it was necessary to develop a control strategy. It was initially assumed that BXW could not be controlled by individual farmers because bacteria would be permanently reintroduced from neighboring infected plots; therefore, collective action to prevent reinfections was needed. The first social science research question was “what are the most appropriate collective action interventions to control BXW in a village?”

ILAC project on BXW in DR Congo

Singing and chanting to announce the meeting. Photo: Boudy Van Schagen

The project team then decided to try three parallel but linked collective action interventions: creation of self-help groups, coordination of influential local actors (e.g., priests, pastors, chiefs and NGOs), and collaboration with established farmer organizations. Soon the agronomic experiments conducted by the two projects mentioned in the footnote clearly indicated that when SDSR is used properly, the incidence of BXW can be reduced to less than 2% of plants in about two months irrespective of the initial incidence level. This low level of incidence suggested that it might be possible for farmers to control the disease individually. The core team then posed a new agronomic research question “can farmers control BXW in their farms with SDSR irrespective of what their neighbors do?”

This question is essential for the design of control strategies. If farmers can control BXW individually, no collective action is needed and the agronomic recommendations and control programs are simpler.

In addition, the transdisciplinary team explored a third research question: “Can the small self-help groups provide rapid feedback on new agronomic, social and organizational recommendations for the control of BXW?”

As the project progressed, the team observed that the self-help groups did not work as expected: they did not catalyze farmer experimentation but they helped researchers to identify issues that had not been considered in the initial design of the transdisciplinary project and to adjust the research activities. Additionally, since the farmers in the groups did not use the whole control package as recommended (see below), their actions were seen as uncontrolled experiments that tested the flexibility of the recommendations. As all farmers were able to reduce the incidence to 2% or less, it was concluded that the recommendations could be greatly simplified. Originally, the recommendations included (a) cutting diseased plants weekly; (b) cutting the male bud; (c) preventing livestock from wandering freely in the banana plots; and (d) to allow livestock preventing the children from cutting banana leaves. The new recommendations were included only cutting the diseased stems at least once a month and disinfecting the cutting tool afterwards.[3] The simplification of the recommendations is particularly important because practices (c) and (d) created important social tensions as it is customary and children to move freely among the bananas.

As a conclusion, the rapid adaptation of the research questions was possible because (a) at the beginning of the transdisciplinary work there was already a wealth of knowledge about BXW, including the basis of a control strategy; (b) the agronomy and social experiments implemented by the team yielded responses in a few months, not years; and (c) the research team was explicitly seeking to identify emerging issues; as has been identified in the specialized literature, serendipity happens only when researchers have multiple selection criteria, and are flexible and opportunistic (Nickles 2003).

While transdisciplinary research can accelerate the generation and diffusion of appropriate research outputs, it cannot be mechanically imposed on teams, as the difficulties of using on-farm research and participatory research have shown. A critical factor in the integration of the teams is the combination of a “generalist”, a researcher that can talk different “languages” (disciplinary research, development with the NGOs and “livelihoods” with farmers) and strong disciplinary researchers. A team with only generalists lacks depth of knowledge; a team with only disciplinary researchers has difficulties in building shared communication codes. In addition to the individual scientific approaches, the creation of transdisciplinary depends on institutional settings and incentives (National Research Council 2014).

ILAC pilot project on BXW in DR Congo

Group meeting in Bugohre, Kabare Territory, South Kivu. Photo: Boudy Van Schagen

Next steps

The next steps to be taken in the project are the exploration of three emerging issues:

  • Explore if redesigned self-help groups of farmers contribute to the dissemination of SDSR
  • Engaging influential actors, especially large NGOs, to help disseminate SDSR
  • Adapting the recommendations to different banana-based production systems; in particular, exploring how fast the incidence increases with less intensive controls

These recommendations are effective in high altitude areas where the insect population is small; additionally, in the research area there are few wandering animals. The recommendations will be tested in other areas with a different ecological and social environment.

[1] Adapted from: “Setting up a trans-disciplinary research team for the control of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) in South Kivu Province, DRC” by Javier Ekboir, Boudy van Schagen and Guy Blomme

[2] The recommendation to cut at least once a month resulted from the behavior of the disease in the farms of the self-help members. This is being validated in experimental plots and with other farmers.

[3] The project builds on two previous projects that studied options for control of BXW in experimental plots. These projects are Transforming CIALCA into a Humidtropics platform in East and Central Africa – CIALCA+, and FAO-Food Security Risks in the Great Lakes Region – Rapid response to the threat of banana diseases.

For more information, please contact Javier Ekboir at j.ekboir@cgiar.org





Controlling Banana Xanthomonas Wilt with the single diseased stem removal technique

The bacterial disease Banana Xanthomonas wilt (better known as BXW) has caused significant losses in banana production in East and Central Africa over the past decade. It continues to spread, devastating farms planted with the local banana varieties that many Africans depend on as staple food and income source.

Single Diseased Stem Removal (SDSR) is a crop management practice that consists in cutting at soil level a plant showing symptoms of BXW in order to control the disease. It was developed as an alternative to uprooting the entire mat. To be successful in controlling the disease, the SDSR technique needs to be applied in combination with the cultural practices that prevent infections, namely debudding and disinfecting farm tools. Read more on the Single Diseased Stem Removal (SDSR) method.

The story of the Katana’s banana farmers in the Democratic Republic of Congo illustrates how BXW can be managed using the SDSR method. Read more on the successful Congolese experience rehabilitating banana fields devastated by Xanthomonas wilt.

Fruits of banana plants infected with BXW/Bioversity

Fruits of banana plants infected with BXW/Bioversity International

New banana disease to Africa found in Mozambique

A destructive strain of a banana wilt disease has been discovered on Cavendish bananas in Mozambique. The disease, widely known as Foc TR4, is a form of Fusarium wilt or Panama disease, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4. This fungus has devastated banana plantations in Asia over the past two decades. The African outbreak was discovered on a commercial farm in northern Mozambique earlier in 2013 with support from UEM (Universidade Eduardo Mondlane), and the responsible fungus subsequently identified at Stellenbosch University in South Africa. The Ministry of Agriculture in Mozambique has announced this outbreak via the IPPC (International Plant Protection Convention) portal. Dr Serafina Mangana, Head of Mozambique’s national plant protection organization (NPPO), said that “the outbreak is limited to a few fields on the farm”.

Diseased plants in Mozambique


All sites where the disease was found have now been isolated, the affected plants destroyed, and appropriate phytosanitary measures have been implemented to prevent the disease from spreading. Mozambique government officials have visited the farm, and have introduced in-country measures to contain and prevent spread to other parts of the country. A stakeholder consultation meeting to explain the outbreak was held in Maputo in November 2013, and will be followed by similar meetings in neighboring countries to raise awareness, heighten surveillance and put in place an emergency response plan. A consortium of partners, including the Mozambique Department of Agriculture, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Stellenbosch University, Bioversity International, FAO, National Agricultural Research and Regulatory Organisations and government officials throughout Africa are being mobilized to address the outbreak, monitor plantations and raise awareness in Mozambique, the region and continent. The expertise in this consortium of producers, national authorities, quarantine services, banana agronomists, banana pathologists and breeders will resolve the current situation in Mozambique and prepare countries across the continent for any future incursions of this potentially deadly disease.

Joint statement issued by the Mozambique Department of Agriculture, Matanuska, IITA, Stellenbosch University and Bioversity International.

For further information please contact Fen Beed, IITA plant pathologist f.beed@cgiar.org

More “matoke” in East Africa with planned regional testing of first-ever, high-yielding hybrids

Dar es Salaam – 25 October 2013. The production of the East Africa Highland banana, also known as cooking banana and “matoke” in the region is poised to get a boost with the distribution of the first-ever, high-yielding, and disease-resistant hybrid varieties.

The 26 hybrid varieties are a result of over 20 years of joint breeding efforts between the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) of Uganda and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). They are dubbed NARITAs (NARO_IITA).

IITA and NARO recently entered into an agreement to test the hybrids in all the banana growing areas in East Africa in collaboration with the respective national programs and Bioversity International.

Read more

From left to right: 1. Enzirabahima (Matooke), 2. First generation hybrid and 3. Hybrids of first generation hybrid, called NARITA 9

From left to right: 1. Enzirabahima (Matooke), 2. First generation hybrid and 3. Hybrids of first generation hybrid, called NARITA 9

Global Musa Expert Workshop: Production constraints, yield gaps, and research strategies for smallholder banana production

As part of the multi-crop priority assessment exercise coordinated by RTB, the Global Musa Expert Workshop took place in Kampala, Uganda, last April. Here are the major outcomes of the meeting, which was co-hosted by NARO, IITA, Bioversity and CIAT.

  •  A quantitative estimates of average farmer yield and yield variability for the five major cultivar groups in different production systems and major factors causing this variability were identified.
  • A list of priority research options – in line with the results of the global expert survey – was developed and agreed upon by the group.
  • Preliminary quantitative parameter estimates describing the impact of the selected research options were provided by working groups.

Since the number of workshop participants was limited, a real time e-forum available in three languages was organized through ProMusa and the regional banana networks in parallel to the meeting to facilitate the engagement of a wider group of experts and other stakeholders of the global banana community in the assessment. The e-Forum page, including the results of the expert survey, received a large number of visits especially during the workshop days. The meeting and the subsequent 3-day field trip also provided excellent networking opportunities for RTB members and partners. Read more

Diemuth Pemsl

Banana Survey Results to be used to Select Research Options at Expert Uganda Workshop

Browse through the results and join the online discussion.


The results of a survey of banana experts, conducted at the beginning of the year as part of the RTB priority setting exercise, have recently been released and are now available online. The survey attracted responses from over 500 different research scientists located in over 50 countries, and sought to establish the most important constraints that limit banana yields and farmers’ incomes while also determining research priorities.

The results of the survey could not come at a better time. Over 40 banana experts from advanced research institutes and leading banana-producing countries will gather in Kampala, Uganda, between the 8-11 of April to complete the information on production constraints and research options. During the workshop, co-hosted by NAROBioversity International and IITA, multidisciplinary groups will be formed by major cultivar groups to finalize the list of major constraints to banana production and marketing and to estimate related yield gaps and/or foregone income.

The workshop participants will then select 10-15 research options that best address the leading constraints and estimate model parameters (such as research costs, expected increases in yield and income, expected decrease in production cost, adoption potential, and impacts on health, gender equity and the environment) and their stochastic distribution to be used in a sensitivity analysis.

At appropriate points during the four-day workshop, outcomes will be posted in the e-forum on the ProMusawebsite to allow stakeholders who are not in the workshop to participate and provide comments that will be fed back to the participants in Kampala: http://www.promusa.org/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=94

Daily summaries will also be available on the ProMusa Twitter (@Promusa_banana) and Facebook pages (ProMusa Banana Community).


New publications: Trainer’s manuals on banana tissue-culture plantlets

The RTB Research Program recently released its first publications, the result of an IITA-coordinated project.

imageTwo training manuals, one on growing bananas using tissue-culture plantlets and the other on running a banana tissue-culture nursery, are now available online. The manuals are based on trainings conducted in Burundi, Kenya and Uganda as part of a project exploring alternative ways of delivering tissue-culture plantlets to smallholder farmers. They explain how to train farmers and prospective nursery operators to become successful entrepreneurs. Read more

Trainers manual