Dashboard

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Trainees in short-term programs facilitated by RTB

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27% with an explicit target of women farmers

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Trainees in long-term programs facilitated by RTB

RTB at a glance

The CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) was launched in 2012 to harness the untapped potential of banana (including plantain), cassava, potato, sweetpotato, yam, and other root and tuber crops to improve food security, nutrition and livelihoods. RTB brings together the expertise and resources of five centers: the International Potato Center (CIP), which leads the program; Bioversity International; the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); and the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), which represents several other French partners in the research program. The centers have teamed up to collaborate on common issues affecting RTB crops, mobilize complementary expertise and resources, avoid duplication of efforts, and create synergies. This collaborative approach aims to increase the benefits of the centers’ research and interventions for smallholder farmers, consumers, and other actors in root, tuber and banana value chains.

In 2016, RTB was both wrapping up its first phase and preparing for Phase II (2017–2022). A key part of the transition involved the restructuring of research for development activities in five interdisciplinary flagship projects (FPs), illustrated below and described throughout this report. Each flagship has a dynamic leader based in one of the centers and is composed of a set of interrelated research ‘clusters’ which have clear impact pathways through which RTB centers and their partners collaborate to achieve targeted outcomes. The areas of focus for each of the clusters were identified through an RTB assessment to determine the options with the greatest potential for impact.

Flagship projects

RTB consolidated its results-based management (RBM) with the reorganization into clusters. Monitoring and evaluation indicators linked to impact pathways were developed for each of the 25 clusters, to guide progress toward outcomes. RBM will be facilitated by an online planning, monitoring, evaluation, and learning platform that RTB co-developed with the CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems that was used for planning 2017 deliverables.

In 2016, RTB maintained collaboration with 366 partners, primarily national agricultural research organizations, academic and advanced research institutions, private companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These valuable partnerships will play an increasingly important role in this second phase as the program works to scale out the technologies and approaches developed under its flagships. RTB will seek to accelerate the scaling of innovations linked with capacity development for partners, while ensuring that research benefits women and men alike and engages youth. Together, RTB and its broad network of partners will work to achieve the program’s intermediate development outcomes – which are fully aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals – by 2022.

Sustainable Development Goals

Selected Program Targets (2022)

20 million people (50% women) increased their income

30,000 small and medium enterprises operating profitably in the RTB seed and processing sectors

8 million farm households increased RTB crop yield through the adoption of improved varieties and sustainable management practices

10 million people (50% women) have improved their diet quality

1.9 million ha of current RTB crops production area converted to sustainable cropping systems

• At least 2 million households with increased capacity to deal with climate risks and exrtremes

9,500 individuals (50% women) with improved capacities in partner organizations

• At least 5 partnership and scaling models tested in a minimum of 5 target countries

Selected Program Targets (2022)

20 million people (50% women) increased their income

30,000 small and medium enterprises operating profitably in the RTB seed and processing sectors

8 million farm households increased RTB crop yield through the adoption of improved varieties and sustainable management practices

10 million people (50% women) have improved their diet quality

1.9 million ha of current RTB crops production area converted to sustainable cropping systems

• At least 2 million households with increased capacity to deal with climate risks and exrtremes

9,500 individuals (50% women) with improved capacities in partner organizations

• At least 5 partnership and scaling models tested in a minimum of 5 target countries

Our team

Where we work

In 2016, RTB focused on research in 28 countries across Asia, Africa and Latin America. Click on the countries highlighted below to see more information.

RTB Where We Work Placeholder
RTB Where We Work


Enhanced utilization of genetic resources

Flagship Project 1 (FP1) applies leading-edge science to ensure faster and more precise development of root, tuber and banana varieties that farmers and consumers demand, and enhances the long-term conservation of crop genetic diversity. During Phase I, thousands of RTB crop accessions underwent DNA sequencing, generating the critical mass of data needed to link genomic regions to traits. RTB centers made new partnerships: collaborating with Royal Holloway University of London (RHUL) to explore the potential of metabolomics (the study of metabolites involved in cellular processes), and with the Boyce Thompson Institute to develop common bioinformatics platforms for data management.

Important progress was made through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which compare DNA sequencing and phenotype data to identify genetic markers associated with specific traits. GWAS in cassava resulted in the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance to cassava green mite, cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), as well as high pro-vitamin A or dry matter content in storage roots —information that breeders can use to develop improved varieties. Researchers from Bioversity International and CIRAD used GWAS on a panel of banana accessions to identify QTLs linked to seedless fruit, an essential trait for consumers, which can guide breeding, whereas IITA is applying that sequencing data to an ongoing field study of drought tolerance in the same accessions. Meanwhile, researchers at CIP used GWAS on a panel of landrace potatoes to identify genetic markers associated with iron, zinc, or both, which can be used to accelerate breeding of biofortified varieties. The technique is also being used to identify genomic regions associated with heat tolerance in sweetpotato based on data from a field screening of 1,973 accessions.

Metabolite analysis at RHUL revealed the potential of yam foliage as a source of valuable compounds, and found metabolites that can be used to identify species from in-vitro banana and cassava material in genebanks.

RTB is creating a breeding community of practice that brings together breeders, molecular geneticists, pathologists, nutritionists and social scientists to prioritize breeding program objectives, develop strategies to incorporate end-users’ needs into them, address gaps and share potential solutions.

MusaTab tablet app facilitates recording banana data in the field

In order to improve the conservation and utilization of global banana diversity, RTB helps Musa (banana and plantain) collection curators and researchers around the world collect, share, and access information about different cultivars. As part of this effort, Bioversity International and partners, within the framework of the Global Musa Genetic Resources Network MusaNet, created a novel tool called MusaTab — an android application for recording banana characterization data using tablets.

MusaTab allows users to record observations, consult or enter data, take photos of plants, and score Musa spp. descriptors in the field. It is one of various tools available through the Musa Germplasm Information System (MGIS), a global exchange system on Musa germplasm diversity managed by Bioversity International. MGIS provides open access to passport data, botanical classification, morpho-taxonomic descriptors, molecular studies, photos and geographic information system data on 4,608 Musa accessions in 21 collections around the world.

Visit the Musa Germplasm Information System

Photo: Crop Diversity

Feature stories


Quality planting material and productive varieties

The objective of Flagship Project 2 (FP2) is to make available good-quality planting materials of a diverse set of high-yielding RTB varieties that are adapted to the needs and preferences of different stakeholders in the value chain. To do this, RTB supports efforts to improve breeding pipelines and accelerate the release of new varieties, while ensuring that those varieties have traits that both women and men want. The flagship, led by Elmar Schulte-Geldermann, leader of CIP’s Seed Potato for Africa program, also works to reduce bottlenecks in the production and distribution of planting material for those varieties, and improve RTB seed systems and farm-level seed management in general. RTB exploits existing crop diversity while supporting the development of nutrient-rich, resilient varieties that allow farmers to produce food on marginal lands and under climate change.

Among Phase I highlights, RTB centers collected gender-differentiated trait preference data to improve crop breeding, developed resilient and consumer-accepted varieties, and undertook research to improve seed systems. CIP worked with the national potato program in Ethiopia to incorporate gender into participatory varietal selection (PVS) in order to improve the adoption of improved varieties. IITA worked with 23 yam breeders and technicians at breeding programs in Ghana and Nigeria to design and implement a PVS methodology for yam, which was used with 4,328 farmers to evaluate 24 yam varieties, and collect trait preference data to guide yam breeding.

A cross-center project in five sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries used questionnaires and interviews to assess consumer preferences and gender differences in the perception of cassava product quality, resulting in a baseline of data available for cassava breeding programs. Undertaken as part of the Breeding Better Bananas project led by IITA, scientists from Bioversity International, IITA and the National Agricultural Research Organization of Uganda, and the Agricultural Research Institute of Tanzania, undertook a gender-differentiated baseline study of banana trait preferences to improve banana breeding in Uganda and Tanzania.

Meanwhile, RTB centers supported national partners in the development and dissemination of improved varieties. These include recently released varieties such as the nutritious sweetpotato variety ‘Lawrence’ in Mozambique; the high-yielding yam variety TDr 98/00933 in Nigeria; the disease-resistant cassava varieties ‘Naro Cas1’ and ‘Naro Cas2’ in Uganda; the pest- and disease-resistant hybrid banana ‘Kiwangaazi’ released in Uganda; and several salt- and heat-tolerant potato varieties released in Bangladesh, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. These improved varieties will strengthen the food security and incomes of millions of smallholders.

Whiteflies and aphids spread viruses that accumulate in sweetpotato plants from one cropping cycle to the next, causing major yield loss in certain varieties and regions of SSA. CIP is consequently promoting the use of net tunnels—mini net houses made from locally available materials—in areas of high virus pressure. CIP and partners are teaching farmers and vine multipliers to use net tunnels to preserve disease-free mother stock. Researchers have found that by using planting material from net tunnels, farmers can increase their yields by 50–100%, significantly boosting their food security and incomes. While materials to build a net house cost about USD120 in Kenya or Tanzania, researchers in Kenya found the average benefit of using planting material from net tunnels was USD839 over the course of 33 months. By late 2016, more than 600 net tunnels were in use in Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda, and CIP is scaling out the technology in 2017.

Photo: Watering OFSP vines in net tunnel, Kenya. HKI

Yam’s low multiplication rate slows efforts to get improved varieties to farmers. To overcome this, IITA has developed systems for rapid production of pathogen-free seed yams using SETISTM type temporary immersion bioreactor systems (TIBS) and aeroponics (in which roots grow in a fertilized mist in an enclosed, light-free environment). Pathogen-free yam plantlets are introduced into TIBS for multiplication, and the resulting plantlets are hardened and potted in soil for harvest after six months as pre-basic seed, or planted in an aeroponic system for basic seed production. The first public sector aeroponic system in Ghana, inaugurated in 2016 at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research’s Crops Research Institute, in Kumasi, was planted with TIBS plantlets. Because a power outage can cause total production loss, the Kumasi system uses solar power as a backup. By the end of 2016, it was producing pathogen-free minitubers and vine cuttings of two improved and two local yam varieties.

Photo: Bioreactor for yam. M.Friedmann/RTB

Limited availability of disease-free seed potato is a major obstacle to increasing potato productivity in Africa. CIP has responded by promoting aeroponics and, more recently, apical potato cuttings to produce minitubers as starting material for seed production. Cuttings from tissue culture plantlets are rooted in a screenhouse, then planted in the field to produce seed tubers. Production of several rounds of ‘mother’ plants from an initial tissue culture plantlet prior to producing rooted cuttings for field planting results in very high productivity. Integrating apical cuttings into seed systems can reduce the time in which high- quality seed potatoes are available to farmers by one cropping season, while increasing the efficiency of seed production compared to current practices. In Kenya, two businesses have already invested in rooted-cutting production and the national potato program and 40 seed multipliers are using the technology to produce seed tubers in their fields.

Photo: Rooted potato cuttings. M.Parker/CIP

Feature stories


Resilient roots, tubers and bananas

Flagship Project 3 (FP3) works to close yield gaps of RTB crops arising from biotic and abiotic threats, and to develop more resilient production systems, strengthen food security and improve natural resource quality.

During Phase I, RTB centers supported work to assess, contain, and study options for managing major and emerging RTB pest and disease threats. RTB scientists helped coordinate a rapid international response to the first African outbreak of the banana disease Foc TR4, working with National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS), regional organizations and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on a pan-African strategy to contain the disease. CIAT and CIRAD partnered with national and regional organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean to develop strategies and technologies for controlling banana Moko disease, whereas Bioversity International and IITA have raised awareness of and contributed to efforts to monitor and contain banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

CIP coordinated sweetpotato breeding platforms in SSA that have facilitated the development of sweetpotato varieties resistant to viruses and weevils. CIAT, IITA, and FAO partnered with Southeast Asian NARS for the release of parasitoid wasps as a biological control for cassava mealybugs in Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, and South Vietnam, which has significantly lowered populations of that crop pest, and crop losses, in the region. Meanwhile, a multi-center collaboration to improve the management of RTB-critical pests and diseases in SSA under climate change has compiled farm, disease, pest, and weather data from surveys and weather stations at study sites in Burundi and Rwanda. Concurrent laboratory research produced phenology models for insect pests and vectors that will be combined with field data to develop models for predicting future pest and disease risks under climate change scenarios. RTB scientists also contributed to the production of pest risk analysis documents and regional risk maps for some of the most important pest and disease threats to banana, cassava, and potato in East Africa, which will help government agencies in the region to respond to those threats.

Guidelines for facilitating community-based recovery of banana production in BBTD-affected areas

RTB has supported cross-center research to strengthen containment and efforts to help communities recover from banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) a viral disease spread by aphids that is devastating banana and plantain production as it spreads across SSA. Scientists from Bioversity International, CIRAD, IITA, and partner institutions in eight countries conducted three years of field research that resulted in participatory guidelines for banana recovery in BBTD-affected areas.

Those guidelines are based on the experiences of pilot teams in 20 villages in eight countries. They outline the four stages of BBTD recovery: community mobilization, establishment of a banana-free period, development of a BBTD-free seed supply, and replanting fields with reduced risk of BBTD reinfection – highlighting the role of women in each stage. The research team also produced a cross-site synthesis report on gender roles in banana cropping systems and BBTD control to orient more effective engagement of households and communities.

Photo: A banana plant infected with banana bunchy top disease, Nigeria. IITA

Feature stories


Nutritious food and added value through postharvest innovation

Flagship Project 4 (FP4) harnesses the nutritional potential of RTB crops, expands their utilization, and adds value through postharvest innovation. The flagship, led by Simon Heck, leader of CIP’s Resilient, Nutritious Sweetpotato Program, supports the fuller, equitable, and sustainable utilization of RTB crops for healthier diets and improved income opportunities. RTB is working to overcome constraints that have hindered roots, tubers and bananas from entering urban markets, while ensuring that innovations benefit both women and men and promote youth employment along the value chain.

RTB centers have improved postharvest process modeling to enhance sustainability and profitability. For example, a project led by researchers from CIAT, CIRAD, and IITA developed guidelines for the design of energy-efficient cassava flash dryers, potentially contributing to the sustainability of a rapidly growing industry of small- and medium-scale cassava processing enterprises. The guidelines have been widely disseminated in Southeast Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

A cross-center project to find uses for waste from cassava processing that partnered RTB with the CGIAR Research Programs on Humidtropics, and Livestock and Fish resulted in a technology for turning cassava peels—approximately 20% of root mass—into a dried, high-quality cassava-peel mash for use as livestock feed. Feed millers evaluated the mash in feeding trials with chicken and sheep, and found it to be a suitable substitute for 15% of maize in livestock feed mixtures.

CIP’s promotion of orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) purée as a substitute for wheat flour in baked goods has been successfully piloted and could improve diets and incomes in several SSA countries. An assessment of a CIP-coordinated, public–private venture that launched the Golden Power Biscuit and other baked products made with OFSP in Rwanda found that the venture improved earnings of 516 smallholders who supply sweetpotatoes to the factory, and that women suppliers earned significantly more than men.

OFSP purée is just one component of CIP’s highly successful initiative to breed, disseminate, and promote the consumption of biofortified OFSP varieties in SSA (see World Food Prize story). In a comparable biofortification initiative, collaboration between CIAT and IITA facilitated the development of pro-vitamin A, yellow-fleshed cassava varieties in Nigeria that have been distributed to more than 350,000 households by HarvestPlus and the Nigerian government.

To improve adoption of OFSP, CIP and partners used a social relations approach to examine men and women farmers’ perceptions of the benefits of growing OFSP linked to an agriculture–nutrition intervention in the Phalombe and Chikwawa districts in Malawi. Researchers gathered sex-disaggregated data from focus groups with 10 participants each for a total of 178 farmers. Both men and women farmers cited economic and health benefits as key motivations for cultivating OFSP; however, data revealed significant differences between men and women in use of the crop and earnings from its sale. For example, women often trade OFSP roots for other crops to diversify the family diet. The sale of vines as planting material is considered especially financially rewarding, but women’s inclusion in vine markets is limited by access to resources (e.g., irrigation equipment), control over household income, and cultural norms that favor the selection of men to participate in projects.

Photo: A Malawian farmer peels cooked OFSP. S.Quinn/CIP

Approximately 17% of Ugandans (primarily women and youth) raise pigs, and feed represents 62–70% of their variable production costs. RTB-ENDURE scaled out the use of a sweetpotato-vine-based silage as pig feed in Uganda, based on prior research in Kenya and Rwanda that showed it could reduce feed costs by up to 40%. CIP collaborated with ILRI, NARO, Makerere University, and other partners to produce manuals, train farmer associations and non-governmental organizations, and help them start business centers that sell silage and offer fee-based training. Those centers trained youth and farmer groups that purchased their own shredders, and linked farmers to markets through Pig Production and Marketing Ltd., which is also promoting silage use. A total of 77 tons of silage was produced during the second half of 2016; interest in the technology continued to grow in early 2017. CIP expects 10% of sweetpotato and pig farmers in Uganda’s Masaka, Mpigi, Kamuli, and Mukono districts to adopt the technology.

Photo: Sweetpotato foliage can be turned in to silage for pig feed. N.Palmer/CIAT

Cooking-banana is the main staple crop in Uganda, where postharvest losses claim almost 15% of production, highly seasonal harvests result in low market prices, and middlemen earn a disproportionate share of profits. RTB-ENDURE coordinated cooperative farm and value chain research by Bioversity International, CIRAD, IITA, NARO, government extension officers, and the industry association Uganda Fruits and Vegetables Exporters and Producers Association on innovations to reduce postharvest losses and improve market access while prioritizing gender equity. Results included expanding cultivation of improved varieties with longer shelf life, developing a staggered planting system that allows farmers to harvest fruit outside the peak season, and market testing of differentiated products such as peeled bananas. Varieties with hardy, market-preferred fruit were disseminated via 10 mother gardens and 11 macro-propagation chambers. Several of these are managed by women’s groups, whereas two groups began marketing their bananas collectively and sub-county platforms were formed to link more farmers to markets.

Photo: A banana exporter in Uganda packs her produce. S.Quinn/CIP

Feature stories


Improved livelihoods at scale

The scaling of innovations lies at the core of achieving RTB’s ambitious targets of reaching millions of beneficiaries by 2022. This is precisely the objective of Flagship Project 5 (FP5): to improve livelihoods by scaling RTB solutions in agri-food systems. It builds upon and strengthens the impact of the technologies and approaches developed within the other four flagship projects, tailoring and targeting those innovations within existing agri-food systems while ensuring that they are gender equitable and generate opportunities for youth. The flagship conducts forward-looking analysis of trends and provides decision support tools used to tailor, integrate and scale technologies, based on farmer typologies and practical investment steps.

“Roots, tubers and bananas are important crops that enhance farmer livelihoods in different ways,” notes Marc Schut, leader of FP5 and social scientist at IITA. “How depends on the exact geographical location and the related challenges and opportunities for farmers, as well as their production objectives in terms of ensuring household food, income and nutrition security.”

A key part of FP5’s work on gender in 2016 included analysis and reporting of a global set of case studies conducted by RTB and the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics) on the way that gender norms affect the pace, quality and effectiveness of agri-food systems innovation, and how innovation processes influence gender. This was part of the GENNOVATE program (Enabling Gender Equality in Agricultural and Environmental Innovation), an unprecedented global research collaboration involving 11 CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs) and nine centers conducting 137 case studies in 26 countries.

RTB has played a leading role coordinating what is the largest cross-CRP collaboration in the CGIAR system. RTB and Humidtropics undertook 24 case studies between 2014 and early 2016 in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia and Latin America. The study aims to inform the design of RTB research strategies and interventions for more gender-equitable and higher impact adoption and adaptation of technologies and practices.

By partnering with national programs, IITA has contributed to the development and release of more than 40 improved cassava varieties that combine pest and disease resistance with superior postharvest qualities and yield potential. To estimate the impact those varieties have had on smallholder livelihoods, researchers applied a regression model to data from a survey of 1,919 households in Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, and Zambia. The model showed an approximately 10% reduction in poverty among adopters. Given an adoption rate of 34%, this implies that an estimated 24,309 households (equivalent to 194,469 individuals) in the districts studied rose out of poverty, with a greater reduction in poverty among female-headed households. This implies that, controlling for the differences in household characteristics, female-headed households may relatively benefit more than male-headed households from improved cassava varieties.

Photo: Harvesting cassava in Tanzania. H.Holmes/RTB

The highly destructive strain of the Fusarium wilt fungus known as TR4 poses a major threat to banana production. TR4 has been spreading in Asia since 1967, and was detected in Africa in 2013. Scientists from Bioversity International and IITA are working with regional banana networks on responses to the threat. As part of a cross-crop RTB priority assessment exercise, Bioversity International scientists produced an ex-ante estimate of the return to different research options for addressing production losses from TR4. A comparison of internal rates of return (IRR) on research investments showed high rates of return1: (1) improved surveillance and quarantine measures—IRR 13%, for a net present value (NPV) of USD193 million; (2) integrated crop and disease management—IRR 30%; for an NPV of USD505 million; (3) new TR4-resistant banana cultivars—IRR 20%; an NPV of USD187 million;  and (4) transgenic TR4-resistant cultivars—IRR 28%; an NPV of USD 137 million.

1 Based upon a period of 25 years for the return on the investment.

Photo: A banana plant displaying symptoms of TR4. IITA

Feature stories

Knowledge products

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Publications in ISI journals by crop

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Selected Publications

Banana

Cassava

Potato

Sweetpotato

Yam

Partners

Partnership is central to international agricultural research for development precisely because collaboration mobilizes research results through bringing together diverse actors at international, regional, national and local levels. Partnerships are crucial for RTB’s success and form an intrinsic part of the theories of change which make outcomes possible, with the scale and scope of partnerships changing along the research to the development continuum.

In 2016, RTB worked with 366 formally established partners, including private sector, national agricultural research organizations, advanced research institutions, academic institutions, governmental and non-governmental organizations. Innumerable community based organizations and farm households not individually listed here were also central to the program’s success.

Partnership

Donors



  • Government of Odisha

  • Government of Liberia (Ministry of Agriculture)

  • Government of Uganda

  • Government of Tanzania (Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives)

Financial report

RTB started 2016 with an allocated Window 1&2 (W1&2) budget of USD17.0M, which was adjusted during the year to USD14.2M after funding cuts in November. The total 2016 budget for the program was USD92.4M: USD14.2M (15%) from W1&2, and USD78.2M (85%) from W3, bilateral funds and RTB participant centers’ own funds.

2016 Expenditure

Total expenditures in 2016 were USD84.9M, or 92% of the budget, of which USD14.1M (17%) is from W1&2, and USD70.8M (83%) from W3, bilateral and centers’ other funds. W1&2 expenses reached 99% execution of the revised budget and W3, bilateral and centers’ other funds expenditure, reached 91% execution. Expenditure for gender research was USD6.5M, representing 8% of RTB total expenditure in 2016.

The chart below shows the W1&2 budget and expenditure by flagship and the management expenditure of USD1.5M. RTB had an average execution of 99% of each flagship budget.

Flagship 2016 W1&2 Budget Vs Expenditure (USD Millions)

Flagship W1 & 2 Budget
Bioversity CIAT CIP IITA CIRAD PMU TOTAL
FP1 : Enhanced genetic resources 0.61 0.28 0.68 0.39 0.10 0.41 2.49
FP2 : Productive varieties and quality seed 0.47 0.65 1.50 0.95  –  – 3.57
FP3 : Resilient crops 0.85 0.24 0.70 0.87 0.28  – 2.94
FP4 : Nutritious food and added value 0.04 0.42 0.03 0.35 0.44  – 1.28
FP5 : Integrated livelihoods at scale 0.45 0.04 0.65 0.04  –  – 1.17
CRP Management/Coordination 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03  – 1.39 1.53
Gender Research 0.20 0.16 0.62 0.23  –  – 1.22
TOTAL 2.66 1.84 4.22 2.86 0.82 1.80 14.20
Flagship W1 & 2  Expenditure
 Bioversity   CIAT   CIP   IITA   CIRAD   PMU   TOTAL 
FP1 : Enhanced genetic resources 0.61 0.36 0.73 0.38 0.10 0.26 2.44
FP2 : Productive varieties and quality seed 0.47 0.56 1.50 0.98  –  – 3.51
FP3 : Resilient crops 0.85 0.27 0.70 0.86 0.28  – 2.96
FP4 : Nutritious food and added value 0.04 0.39 0.03 0.35 0.44  – 1.25
FP5 : Integrated livelihoods at scale 0.45 0.05 0.65 0.03  –  – 1.18
CRP Management/Coordination 0.03 0.04  – 0.03  – 1.44 1.54
Gender Strategies 0.20 0.16 0.62 0.22  –  – 1.20
TOTAL 2.66 1.84 4.22 2.85 0.82 1.70 14.08

RTB 2012 -2016

The distribution of budget by funding sources shows a declining contribution of W1&2 over time, falling from 41% in 2012 to 17% in 2016 – with a respective increase in W3, bilateral funds & center funds, from 59% to 83%, in the same period.

Total expenditure in 2016 increased by 56% compared with 2012, showing an overall positive trend for the program (USD84.9M in 2016 vs. USD54.6M in 2012). The cumulative expenditure reached USD356.0M over the five years of the program (USD117.0M from W1&2, and USD239.0M from W3, bilateral and center funds).

CGIAR Funding Windows

Windows 1&2 funds are provided by the CGIAR to RTB for allocation across the agreed product portfolio. Window 1 funds are allocated by the CGIAR System Organization to different CRPs including RTB, while Window 2 funds are designated by donors specifically to RTB.

Window 3 funds are allocated directly to CGIAR Centers by donors and are mapped into RTB when they are consistent with the RTB product portfolio. Window 3 includes a deduction of 2% of the total budget as contribution to the CGIAR System Organization.

Bilateral funds are contracts directly signed between a center and a donor and mapped into RTB.

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